A Delegate's Guide to HSEIMUN
In order to participate in MUN successfully, one needs to prepare for it well in advance. A delegate should study the questions on the agenda carefully and examine the official position of the state she or he represents, as well as be familiar with the rules of the procedure.
Before the Conference: Preparing a Policy Statement
Exploring the Country
During the conference delegates must express not their personal viewpoints, but the official position of a country they represent. Hence, country research is crucial for authentic MUN role-play.

When researching the country it is important to know as much as possible about it:

- Historical background;
- Structure of Government (form of government, party system, political regime etc.);
- Socio-economic factors (ethnic and religious groups, education and income rates, GDP per capita etc.)
- International Relations (membership in organizations and alliances, bordering countries, position on important global issues).

Here are the important links to start:

- Best Delegate Resources;
- United Nations Association of the USA;
- IMUNA Resources;
- World Bank Data;
Exploring the Agenda
The agenda of HSEIMUN is published before the conference to let delegates prepare beforehand for the work in the Committees. A delegate should thoroughly examine the questions of the agenda in order to make his participation fruitful and maintain effective and constructive working process of the Committee.

We recommend to learn the agenda using the following guide:

- General Background (history and current state of the problem, its reasons and outcomes, countries involved, salience of the issue);
- The country's position (impact of the problem on the country, the country's role in its resolution and its policy);
- The UN efforts to solve the problem (the mandate of the UN, previous efforts / documents etc.)

Here are the important links to start with:

- HSEIMUN Agenda;
- Global Issues Overview (UN);
- UN Documentation Centre;
- UN Member States on the Record
Exploring the UN
Delegates should know what the UN is permitted to do in order to solve the problem, as well as they should be aware of each UN Committee responsibilities, including Security Council and General Assembly

The key issues to be taken into account are:

- Membership;
- Voting rules;

Useful links:

- Intergovernmental Negotiations and Decision Making at the United Nations: A Guide;
- UN Official Website;
Policy Statement Structure
A policy statement (or a position paper) is a short speech of a delegate (90 seconds) that gives an overview of a country's opinion on the agenda , as well as the measures a country proposes to solve the problem. The paper usually addresses only one issue to underline the priority of the country.

Policy statements are presented on the 1st day of the conference before the lobbying, in order to find supporters of your draft resolution.

A policy statement should include:

- Brief background of the topic;
- Past actions taken by the international community and evaluation of their (in) effectiveness;
- Country policy;
- Possible solutions.


Here are some links that may help you in preparing a successful policy statement:

- Best Delegate resources;
- MUN resources;
- HelpMyMUN resources;
- Sample Position Papers
Before the Conference: Making Draft Resolution
What is a Resolution?
(1) A resolution is a formal UN document devoted to a particular issue. Preparing, discussing and voting for resolutions are the central activities of MUN conference;

(2) A resolution normally takes one sentence, regardless of how long it is. This sentence is divided into clauses.

(3) A resolution has three major parts:

- Heading, which contains the committee name, the topic of the resolution, the submitters (authors, sponsors) and co-submitters (signatories) of the resolution.

- Pre-ambulatory clauses, explaining the topicality of the issue, namely, why the committee finds the problem important.

- Operative clauses, providing measures to solve the problem (the basic part).
Formal Requirements for Resolutions
(1) There is a special formal language to be used in the resolutions. Its pre-abmulatory and operative clauses must start with verbs, but their forms differ depending on the part. In the preamble verbs should usually be put in -ing form (reaffirming, noting that, bearing in mind), while in the operative part verbs are to be used in the 3rd person singular (calls upon, urges, encourages).

(2) Lines with pre-ambulatory and operative clauses must be enumerated.

(3) Since resolution is a single long sentence, no capital letters or points are used in the preamble or the operative part. Verbs entering the clause should be typed in italics.

(4) Pre-abmulatory clauses may mention pervious UN efforts to solve the problem (past resolutions, international treaties, UN Charter), as well as underline the significance of the problem.

(5) Operative clauses offer complete solutions and must be detailed enough (what should be done, who is responsible, what resources are to be allocated etc.)

Useful Verbs
More verbs can be found here.

(1) Useful verbs to be used in the pre-ambulatory clauses:

Affirming
Alarmed by
Approving
Bearing in mind
Believing
Convinced
Declaring
Deeply concerned
Emphasizing
Expecting
Fully aware
Guided by
Keeping in mind
Noting with
Nothing with
Observing
Reaffirming
Realizing
Recalling
Recognizing
Referring
Taking into consideration
Welcoming

(2) Useful verbs to be used in the pre-ambulatory clauses:

Affirms
Approves
Asks
Calls for
Calls upon
Condemns
Congratulates
Confirms
Declares
Encourages
Expresses its hope
Hopes
Invites
Proclaims
Proposes
Recommends
Regrets
Requests
Resolves
Seeks
Strongly affirms
Strongly urges
Suggests
Supports
Urges

Samples
Sample Resolution made according to HSEIMUN template

Other samples can be found here.


Day 1: Opening Ceremony & Lobbying
Opening Ceremony
Opening Ceremony is a formal meeting that includes welcoming addresses of the Secretary General and honorable guests of the Conference, including the diplomats and experts invited to the Conference. Each delegation should be seated according to the predefined alphabetical order during the Opening Ceremony. Note-passing and talking is prohibited during the Opening Ceremony.

At the end of the Opening Ceremony the Secretary General reads the Agenda. Delegates have an opportunity to amend the Agenda at this point, raising the motion to amend the Agenda. Motions are briefly discussed and voted, the decision is taken by simple majority (one country has only one vote). Should there be no amendments, the Secretary General asks if the Agenda seconded or not (delegates should say "seconded" or raise their placards for motions to amend the Agenda).
Policy Statements Presentation
After the Opening Ceremony, delegates proceed with working within their committees. The Chairs starts with a roll-call. When a delegations hears the name of their country, they should raise the plackard and say "Present" or "Here".

After that policy statement presentation starts. Each delegate has 90 seconds to present their policy statement to the House. No points of information are allowed at this stage.
Lobbying
Lobbying is an informal procedure of drafting the resolutions. Policy statements may give delegates information on what countries propose close solutions and share close positions. It can be helpful for further cooperation.

The main goal is to make a consolidated draft resolution. Delegates who have their own resolution drafts make up informal groups to discuss them and create a single document.

Having discussed the essence of the resolution, the group of delegates needs to appoint the main submitter of the resolution (i.e. the author who will present it to the House and give the key speech in favor of it).

Then the groups must make up a list of co-submitters - the delegates that sign this resolution. Co--submitters are delegates who agree with the resolution and / or want it to be discussed during the committee sessions.

During the lobbying, pre-abmulatory and operative clauses are to be merged into a single document.
Formal Requirements for Resolutions and Approval Panel
To be accepted to the Committee session, a draft resolution should meet the following requirements:

(1) it must have at least six co-submitters;

(2) it must follow the HSEIMUN template (see Draft resolution section);

(3) it must be approved by the Approval Panel. The Approval Panel is a group of teachers and Secretariat members who check the language, logical coherence, template and political correctness of the resolution;
Day 2: Committees in Session
General Rules of Procedure
(1) During the debate all delegates must be respectful, polite and follow the formal mode of communication. Formal dress-code is a must. All speakers, including those rising to points, must stand when speaking and address the Chair first.

(2) "I" is out of order. When speaking, a delegate must address him- or herself in the 3rd person singular ("Russia believes", "The delegate supposes") or in the plural ("We urge").

(3) The decisions of the Chair are final. Only the Chair, a member of the house recognized by the Chair for a point, or the speaker holding the floor has any right to speak.

(4) The Chair may, if circumstances warrant it, extend or reduce debate times or speaking times and limit the number of points of information.

(5) Except by a decision of the Chair, there will be no suspension of the rules or changes in the order of debate.
Notes and Note Passing
(1) Delegates may communicate with each other during the Session by making and passing notes. Delegates are encouraged to prepare their own note templates or obtain them from the Chair or the Administrative Staff. Notes must have clear indications of the author and the addressee (e.g. FROM ... TO...). Notes can be addressed to the Chair as well.

(2) To send a note, a delegate should raise it and wait for members of the Administrative Staff to take it. Delegates must remain silent while passing notes.

(3) The content of a note must relate to MUN issues only. It can ask a question, explain a position, or propose an amendment when submitted to the Chair.

(4) Note-passing can be limited or restricted by the decision of the Chair.

Further information on note-passing can be found here.
Beginning of the Debate
(1) The Chair opens the Session, welcoming the delegates and introducing the rules of procedure;

(2) The Chair conducts the roll-call. Before the roll-call all delegates should be seated according to the alphabetical order. When a delegate hears the name of his / her country, he / she should raise the placard and say "Present" or "Here"';

(3) The Chair explains the House the Agenda and the Schedule, as well as the order of the resolutions to be discussed;

(4) The Chair calls upon the Submitter of the first Resolution. The Submitter reads the operative part of the resolution. Then the Chair asks the House if the resolution is seconded. Delegates should say "Seconded" out loud or say "Objection" to raise a motion.

(5) If the resolution is seconded, the Chair sets the debate time. After that the floor is given to the Submitter to speak in favor of the resolution.

(6) Having spoken in favor of the resolution, the Submitter may answer several points of information (questions) from the House and yield the floor to the Chair or another delegate.
Open and Closed Debate: Taking and Yielding the Floor
(1) The Chair sets the debate mode. There are two types of debate: open and closed. Open debate implies that all delegates may speak either in favor or against the resolution. Closed debate means that first the floor is given to delegates wishing to speak in favor of the resolution, and secondly - to those against the resolution.

(2) When the Chair declares that the floor is open, delegates wishing to speak should raise their placards. To speak, a delegate must be recognized by the Chair.

(3) Having spoken for or against the resolution, the delegate can open him / herself to points of information. No more than three points of information are allowed, though the number can be restricted by the Chair in the interest of debate time.

(4) The delegate can yield the floor back to the Chair, or yield it to another delegation (only once).
Delegates' Points and Motions
There are several points and motions delegates can declare. However, no points and motions, except for point of personal privilege, can interrupt the speaker or the Chair.

To rise a point or declare a motion, a delegate needs to raise his / her placard when the floor is open and specify the point / motion

Points:

(1) Point of Information: a question a delegate wishes to ask another delegate or the Chair;

(2) Point of Order: a point made to the Chair relating to procedural matters only;

(3) Point of Personal Privilege: relates to the comfort or dignity of a member (e.g. too hot, too cold, too noisy etc.);

(4) Point of Parliamentary Inquiry: a question to the Chair related to the rules of procedure (amendments, motions, voting etc.).

Motions:

(1) Motion to table the resolution: proposes that the resolution should be suspended without further discussion. Approved by the majority of the delegates;

(2) Motion to move into open debate / closed debate / time in favor / time against: proposes to change the debate mode. Should be seconded without objections;

(3) Motion to extend the debate time. Approved by the Chair;

(4) Motion to divide the House: proposes that the House should vote again with no abstentions allowed. Approved by the Chair;

(5) Motion to move directly to the voting procedure. Approved by the Chair;

(6) Motion to propose and amendment: proposes an amendment to the resolution. Approved by the Chair.
Amendments
(1) Each delegate is free to propose amendments to the resolution. A nations wishing to propose an amendment needs to send a note to the Chair, stating the amendment in written form.

(2) There are three possible types of amendments: to delete (to strike out) certain clause or sub-clause, to change an existing clause or to add a new point. The type of the amendment must be clearly specified in the note.

(3) As soon as the Chair received a note, he / she reads the amendment, asks if it is seconded or if there are objections, and yields the floor to the author of the amendment;

(4) The Chair sets the debate time and type (normally closed debate) to discuss the amendment. Once the discussion is finished, the Chairs calls for a voting procedure.

(5) The amendment passes if the majority of the House votes for it. No abstentions are allowed at this point.
Voting Procedures
(1) Voting procedure can be initiated when the discussion time is elapsed, or if there is a seconded motion to move to the voting procedure, or by the decision of the Chair;

(2) By raising their placards, delegates can vote in favor or against the resolution, as well as abstain.

(3) If there is a seconded motion to divide the House, or by the decision of the Chair, abstentions are out of order.
Useful Phrases for Delegates
Asking for permission to speak to the House

- The delegate requests the floor / We wish to have the floor

Speaking in favor of / against the resolution

- The delegation wishes to speak in favor of / against the resolution / amendment, because....
- We urge the House (the member states) to vote for / against this resolution / amendment, because ...

Asking questions and stating motions:

- Point of information / point of order to the Chair / the delegate of [Country]
- Motion to table the resolution / to move directly to the voting procedure / divide the house ...
- Is the delegate (not) aware of the fact that ... ?
- Does the delegate (not) agree with us that ... ?
- Could the delegate please clarify ... ?

Amendments

- We propose an amendment that strikes out ... / changes ... / adds new clause that reads as follows ...

Ending the Speech

- We are (not) open to any (two, three) points of information
- We yield the floor back to the Chair / to the delegate of [Country]
Useful Phrases for Chairs
Asking the House to come to order (be quiet)

- Will the House please come to order!
- The House will now come to order!
- Order in the House!
- Could there please be some order in the house?

Roll - Call

- We will proceed with the roll-call. Whenever you hear the name of your country, please raise your placard high and state "Present" or "Here"
- Is the delegation of [Country] present?

Starting the Debate / Presenting the Resoultion

- We will now start to discuss the resolution on the question of .... , submitted by ....
- The Chairs calls upon the Submitter of the resolution to read its operative part to the House
- Would the Submitter of this resolution please take the floor and read out the operative clauses?
- The Chair sets a debate time of ... minutes of open / closed debate
- Delegate, you have ... minutes to speak in favor of your resolution
- The floor has been yielded back to the Chair

Asking if there are any points or motions / Dealing with motions

- The delegate has opened him- / herself to points of information. Are there any in the House?
- Are there any points of information to the speaker?
- Are there any further points on the floor?
- There is a point of order / inquiry / personal privilege on the floor. Please rise and state your point.
- The motion is granted / approved / overruled by the Chair.

Open Floor / Recognizing a Delegate / Follow-Up

- The floor is now open. Are there any nations wishing to speak / to have the floor?
- [Country], you have been recognized. Please take the floor
- The floor is yielded to the delegation of [Country]
- Will the delegate of [Country] please rise and state his / her point?
- Is the delegate open for the points of information?
- Is the point well taken?

Asking a Delegate to Conclude the Speech

- Will the speaker please come to his / her concluding remarks?
- Will the delegate please yield the floor back to the Chair?

Remarks / Clarifying the Questions

- Would the delegate please state his / her point in the form of a question?
- Will you please repeat / rephrase the point?
- The point is not well taken, please, rephrase your question
- "I" and "You" are out of order. Please use the 3rd person singular when addressing the delegates.

Amendments

- We have an amendment submitted by the delegation of [Country]. Would the delegate please take the floor and speak for the amendment?
- The Chair sets a debate time for the amendment of ... minutes of closed debate: ... minutes in favor and ... minutes against.

Extending / Closing the Debate

- The Chair proposes an extension of debate time by ... minutes.
- The debate is now closed. We will move directly into voting procedure.
- The resolution / amendment / motion is now put on vote.

Voting Procedure

- Now we are moving directly to the voting procedure. All motions are now out of order.
- The Chair asks Adminstaff to take their voting positions.
- Will all those in favor / against the resolution please raise their placards?
- Are there any abstentions?
- Those in favor / against / abstaining
- By ... votes in favor, ... against and ... abstentions this resolution has passed / failed
- There was a motion to divide the house. The motion is granted. When you hear the name of your country please state if you are in favor of or against the resolution. Abstentions are not in order.
Day 3: General Assembly & Closing Ceremony
General Assembly
(1) The General Assembly is chaired by the Secretary General. The rules of procedure are the same, with several exceptions.

(2) The General Assembly discuss those resolutions that were selected by the committees (one resolution per each committee). Resolutions of the Security Council and the Human Rights Committee are not debated during the General Assembly.

(3) The Secretary General yields the floor to the Chair of the Committee to read out the operative clauses of the resolution. Then the Chair must yield the floor to the Submitter in order to speak for the resolution.

(4) The Secretary General sets the debate time and mode. Points of information are allowed.

(5) At the end of the debate the House vote for the resolution.
Closing Ceremony
Closing Ceremony is a semi-formal meeting, where the Chairs presents brief reports on the committees' work and results, as well as announce the best delegates. All delegations are awarded certificates. The Ceremony proceeds with a small performance and closing reception.
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